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Sociological Perspectives on Education
Education is a very important tool in the lives of individuals in the society. Sociologists have established the role of education in several perspectives and viewpoints such as the structural functionalism, conflict, and symbolic interactionism. The functionalists propose that education equips the learners with the ability to perform various duties, functions and roles in the society. On the other hand, the conflict theorists believe that education is a means of widening the social inequality gap in the society (Ballantine & Hammack, 2009). More so, symbolic interactionists believe that the classroom dynamics and the teacher and learner interactions affect the daily lives of the students. Thus, the theories propose various advantages and limitations of the U.S. education using the functional themes of the various assertions.
The functional theorists believe that the U.S. education system is used in the fulfillment of the needs of the society (Hill et al., 2010). Thus, the main aim of education is to equip the learners with social skills. Education is the vehicle that helps the learners with functions in the society such as skills, values, and norms. The schools in U.S. teach the learners the values and norms in the society ad writing, reading and arithmetic. The most prevalent values that learners gain from school in U.S. include being patriotic, being punctual and competitive and showing respect to the authority. Education also equips learners with social integration aspects. The learners get acquainted with values and beliefs, and the nineteenth-century compulsory education has helped several immigrants acquire skills in disciplines such as U.S. history and English that is practical in the integration of workforce. Thus, education is vital in the manifestation functions in the society making schooling harm to the community. The theory requires several reforms to allow education take its course and serve all the functions.
According to Schneider & Silverman (2010), the inequality theory proposes that education perpetuates social inequality in the society. The current education system in U.S. tracks learners into faster and slower categories in their grades. Thus, brighter students become part of the faster tracks while the slower students who use are placed on the slower tracks. Tracking may have the advantage to the learners as the brighter students learn to depend on their ability. However, the theory opines that the tracking system promotes social inequality in the society by locking students into either faster or slower tracks. More so, the race and class of the learners determines the type of track despite using intelligence as a measure of tracking. Learners tend to learn more if they are tracked in faster tracks than the slower tracks. The students in the slower tracks become demoralized and have low self-esteem and exhibit little or low academic ability. Thus, tracking promotes social inequality based on ethnic, race and class. The theorists opine that standardized tests are biased and promote social inequality in the society. In U.S., the standardized tests favor the middle-class and whites and learners with a background that helps in the answering of the questions (Ballantine & Hammack, 2009). The theorists assert that the U.S. education system teaches a hidden curriculum; the beliefs and values taught to support the status quo such as the social hierarchy. The learners gain patriotic respect and values from the books and classroom activities though it is not evident in the curriculum circular.
According to the symbolic interactionism theory, the studies help in understanding the activities in the schools and the understanding of the daily occurrences and its relevance in the society (Ballantine & Hammack, 2009). For instance, the U.S. education highlights that the children playground helps in the reinforcement of gender-role socialization. The system helps boys in becoming competitive while girls participate in cooperative games. More so, the theory states that the view of the teachers can influence the amount of knowledge a learner acquires. Smart teachers help the learners boost their academic intake by calling o their names, spend more time with them and congratulate them when they make a good attempt. The behavior of the teachers helps the learners to take in more resources and insights (Schneider & Silverman, 2010). However, the system is limited when teachers are less bright thus spend less time with the learners and his or her actions promotes little or no learning. The less bright teachers only favor the quick learners because they gain a lot while the slow learners do not gain anything at all. More so, the less bright teachers praise the best performing students making them put in more effort, and he or she does not encourage the others.
In conclusion, the each theory has its advantages and limitations and its practicality in the U.S. educational system. The functional theorists propose that education helps in the socialization of the learners and equips them with skills to live comfortably in the society. The conflict proposers opine that education promotes inequality in the society. On the other hand, symbolic interactionist perspectives propose that social interaction in the playground and interaction in the classroom helps in the socialization of gender-roles. Thus, the U.S. education system requires reforms when evaluated with each of the theories.
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California state is governed by the overall American constitution but also incorporates the California state laws that are only applicable within the state. Among the many laws are ones unique to the sale, consumption and responsibility associated with alcohol and any other legal intoxicants. According to the current tort liability law in California governing alcohol-serving establishments a business owner of an establishment serving alcohol is liable for injuries to patrons who visited the establishment.
What the law requires of me
Under California law, as it is stated on pages of , unless there exists an extraordinary relationship between the business owner or entity and the patron, the entity has no liability over a tipsy customer who hurts themselves or to the one who is hurt by the drunk customer (Francis, 2012). However, the proprietor should take it upon themselves to protect the patrons from injury or hurting others according to Delgado v. Trax Bar & Grill (2005). Liability to the proprietor arise under the following conditions; if the establishment keeper fails to stop a fight as soon as it starts, has tolerated disorderly conditions that have led to injury among others.
Preventing customers from becoming intoxicated
Measures can be put applied to ensure reasonable sobriety of the patrons. Sale of low alcohol content to patrons can prevent them from getting high leading to disorderly behavior. The introduction of time limits to when alcohol can be sold and consumed will prevent patrons from being intoxicated and, therefore, maintain a level of sobriety. The proprietor should also refrain from selling alcohol to a known habitual drunkard, an already intoxicated patron or a person with a history of starting fights, failure to which the proprietor will be liable for misdemeanor according to California law (Section 25602).
Preventing them from leaving when intoxicated
To avert intoxicated patrons from leaving the owner can provide affordable accommodation to patrons so that they can at least have a good rest and sober up before they can leave the premises. Also, the business keeper can provide gambling games that will keep the patrons occupied as they sober-up to ensure they are safe to leave the premises (Francis, 2012).
California law and its enforcement have been a significant milestone in the prevention of injury to state persons of California.
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Similar to americans, public policy, firms, or classes get a life span cycle and sometime will have to end. Policies that are considered inefficient or outdated seldom get terminated because they need policy makers to abolish them artificially, however. Guidelines termination needs to be forced by having a several course of action. Policy termination can be regarded as being an action that is followed in order to bring to an end outdated, unnecessary and inefficient or redundant policies by decision-makers after they have carefully evaluated the policy . The goal of terminating an insurance plan is to name a few in order to avoid a rigid plan, save information, and strengthen the proficiency connected with a guidelines. That is why, this is a very important action in state supervision. However, for a number of reasons, this practice of policy termination has faced a number resistance. The method also includes a number of activities, institutions, personnel and systems or other difficult important things Government solutions also rarely get terminated even while they are unproductive
Termination of general populationorganizations and policies, and regimens is usually forgotten by protection plan research workers. It can be observable that once a policy is at venue, it is rather strong for it to be terminated. This reveals the thought that explains why it is not easy for governments to terminate programs and policies with unsuccessful. The Deleon’s termination resistance version attempts to option this. He examines conditions which in blend results in obstacles in advanced planning and executing the procedure of plan termination.A explanation as to why federal software applications hardly ever get terminated is antitermination coalitions that develops. People products usually result in the expansion of coalitions ofconstituents and staff, and organizations who definitely have a standard desire for looking after the courses. These sectors will come together and become highly effective in blocking any efforts of terminating an application. When self-desire is vulnerable by a forthcoming termination, coalitions will have a problem contrary to the package termination.100 % regimen termination infrequently comes about since authorities often does not undertake an initiative of shutting down a software program as the golf hole in every unique 12 month period. Government entities normally takes working contemplation of insurance plans within the border, so that the focus is often on your proposed change in the current regimen as an alternative to its true worth by and large. This target can come when there are certainly chats towards the multiply or decrease in financing the place reduced or chop backing is given to failed software. Been unsuccessful software programs get repackaged are likely to and given new service titles and new identities whilst keeping an equivalent coverage prescribed, much the same aims, while the similar bureaucracy.
The process of terminating ineffective or outdatedpolicies and programs. Alternatively, organizations needs to be taken with the outmost importance. The government wants to take out any obstacle that inhibits the termination of the above regulations. The dialogues earlier on show that process termination is not easy where is call for to produce improved practices.Upon the usa received self-reliance via the English, the designers within the Constitution permitted giving of knowledge among the list of individuals. They considered that democracy should not be ignorant and free for this reason the necessity of openness and liberty . In this connection, they well established the Costs of Legal rights around the You.S Constitution that included the First Amendment. The amendment provides for freedoms and protections and forbids introduction of a talk about-possessed religion. At the same time, the First Amendment involves splitting up of talk about and safeguards and religion the freedom of 100 percent free speech, the and worship hit . Likewise, it promises the proper rights of relationship, petition and assembly. However, these rights and freedoms are not absolute because they have limitations.
The Earliest Amendment has made it through for over 200 many years whilst not having huge improvements or negations. Legal requirements is a valuable part in a resides of an Us citizens. In 1798, the United Condition president John Adams agreed upon into regulations the Sedition Take action of 1798 . This respond empowered the federal authorities to prosecute any individual who had been suspected of plotting from the govt. For this reason, the respond restricted anybody from speaking or generating maliciously of that chief executive or of congress designed defame or disrepute.Subsequently, the behave limited almost all the governmental interactions for this reason experts of administration bowed to its push or were found to be reprimanded. The good news is, in 1800, the action was not restored as a result of expiry. They stated how the function was contravening the procedures of 1st Amendment. As well as, before slavery, nearly all suggests did not adhere to the provisions from the amendment . Between the two 1800 and 1600, countless says permitted slavery and servant commerce and censored abolitionists’ pamphlets, writings and speeches. These reports debated your wording for the Before anything else Amendment was not well-defined as compared to the other Monthly dues of Liberties amendment .
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Very much like clients, community procedures, companies, or plans have a good existence cycle and ultimately need to last part. Policies that are considered inefficient or outdated seldom get terminated because they need policy makers to abolish them artificially, however. Plan termination should really be imposed with a several method. Policy termination can be regarded as being an action that is followed in order to bring to an end outdated, inefficient and unnecessary or redundant policies by decision-makers after they have carefully evaluated the policy . The purpose of terminating an insurance plan is amongst others in avoiding a rigorous insurance plan, preserve methods, so to help the efficiency for a plan. For this reason, this is a fundamental process in national supervision. However, for a number of reasons, this practice of policy termination has faced a number resistance. This process also includes combination of activities, systems, personnel and institutions and other difficult reasons State methods also almost never get terminated even if they are inefficient